For this Assignment, I have chosen my case study to be the Manitoba Hydro Place. It was built in 2005 and was designed by Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects, Smith Carter Architects and Engineers, and Transsolar (Climate Engineers).
It is located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada- one of the coldest cities in the world. It has very variable weather conditions with extreme highs of 40.6°C (105°F) in August and lows of -45°C (-49°F). It has high levels of rainfall (>50mm) during May, June, July, August, and September. There is a fairly consistent average of wind speed throughout the year at around 17km/h to the S, but there has been a maximum hourly speed of 89km/h and a maximum gust speed of 129km/h. Throughout the site there are a lot of possible daylight hours.with the low being 35% in November and the high being 64.5% in July. (Winnipeg Average Climate)
This Psychometric Chart shows the temperatures and their relative humidity to help get an overview of the building’s need. As you can see from the chart the weather fluctuates a lot and therefore there is a need for varying features within the building to accomodate for a wide range of temperatures.
The Building is oriented south and there is a large southern atria, where the air is mixed up and goes through a humidifier/dehumidifier before it enters the building. This atria space is seen as a buffer zone (see images below) between the internal and external conditions so that there are no harsh transitions during the extreme climates.
Through my analysis of the site, I came up with the following set of diagrams:
These are perspective diagrams showing the temperature and air systems that occur throughout the building. In the diagram the blue represents the cool air, the red represents the warm air and the purple represents the geothermal heating/cooling.
This system has a water feature in the southern side of it (to provide humidification and dehumidification when needed), and operable windows that are constantly intaking the cool air from the outside during the winter. This cool air is then heated by the geothermal wells/field in the previously mentioned buffer zone before it enters the building.
Depending on the season- the geothermal wells can either heat/cool the offices on each floor through overhead ‘radiant ceiling slab’ (as seen in the next diagram below).
On the more northern side of the building there is a solar chimney that is only open in the summer; this takes in the excess hot air that rises in the building and allows it to escape. In the Winter however, when the chimney is closed, the warm air is used both to heat the underground garage and to help the geothermal wells heat up new cool air before it enters the building.
This is a diagram to show the impacts at a ‘human scale’; it shows the ceiling slab and its function of heating/cooling a space more clearly depending on the climate.
It also shows the operational windows that are used in the building, which are not intended to solely let light/heat in but they ensure a constant supply of fresh air.
I have included both a picture of the ceiling slab (left) and the windows (right) to help explain the diagram above.